The history of France ... in outline

Not easy to summarize the rich history of France in a few lines ... however, it is always interesting to be aware of the major events that have marked the history of the country that we visit, more so when it's ours! To us then we dive deeper into the periods that excite us.

  • We affirm human presence on French territory in the Upper Paleolithic, from -7000 groups of men became sedentary. Between the VIth and the IIIrd century BC, Greek colonies settled in the south of France and especially Celtic peoples penetrate what one can start calling Gaul.
  • conquered by Julius Caesar in the first century BC, Gaul will suffer the onslaught of barbarians until Vth century when the Frankish leader Clovis converted to Christianity unifying it was then called the kingdom of the Franks. The kingdom expanded significantly by Pepin and his son Charlemagne to become the great Carolingian Empire.

    The Middle Ages and the Renaissance:
    • The empire will fall gradually after the death of Charlemagne and his grand-son shared the kingdom gets Charles West Francia whose borders vary slightly up at the end of the Middle ages. The monarchy is hereditary with Hugh Capet Capetian reign for over 800 years, the kingdom reached its peak in XIIIth century.
    • The XIVth and the XVth century is a time of crisis (war of recent years, Black Death, insurrections ...). Francis I and his son Henry II will strengthen the unity of the kingdom and the royal power but XVIéme century is disturbed by the wars of religion. Louis XIII and Louis XIV assert the power of France in the territory and outside both by territorial conquests by the advance of French influence in the arts.

      The Revolution:
      • The economic and social upheavals bring Louis XVI convened the Estates General in 1788 which will lead France to the Revolution. The privileges are abolished August 4, 1789, the republic was founded in 1792 and revolutionary France is embarking on several years of war and internal fighting that will lead to the Management Board and the seizure of power by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799.

        The nineteenth century:
        • After a dazzling height of his empire, Napoleon saw an equally rapid decline, it is finally defeated at Waterloo in 1815. Then followed a series of reforms and revolutions throughout the century: constitutional monarchy under Louis XVIII and Charles X, the revolutionary movement and reform of Louis Philippe, revolution of 1848, Second Republic, Second empire of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, Third Republic after the defeat of Sedan to Germany to 1870.

          The twentieth century:
          • The Third Republic held up well despite the crises of World War II .
          • The First World War will be over 1.4 million French victims and concluded in 1918 by a humiliating defeat for Germany by the Versailles Treaty. France is struggling to recover from the war and was hit hard by the crisis of the 30s that will bring to power the Popular Front in 1936.
          • But Germany declared war on France on 3 September 1939, France capitulated June 22, 1940 bringing to power the Vichy regime headed by Marshal Petain. The American landing on June 6, 1944 will mark the beginning of the liberation of France and Germany surrendered May 8, 1945.
          • In France General De Gaulle became head of the Fourth Republic and enters a period of economic prosperity: the postwar boom. In 1958, facing a political crisis linked to the war in Algeria in France is adopting a new constitution: the Fifth Republic .
          • In 1968, after the student and social crisis of May, General De Gaulle resigns and leaves room for Georges Pompidou. In 1974, Valery Giscard D'Estaing became president, the country was then hit by a severe economic crisis. In 1981, he will be beaten by a socialist François Mitterand who remained in power until 1995 at which Jacques Chirac takes power.