The history of Turkey ... broadly


Not easy to summarize the rich history of Turkey in a few lines ... however, it is always interesting to be aware of the major events that have marked the history of the country that we visit. To us then we dive deeper into the periods that excite us.

  • The first human settlements in the Anatolian peninsula are among the oldest in the world. The Hittite Empire emerges XVIII century BC, they will be replaced by the Phrygians and the Cimmerians, Lydians, Lycians, before being occupied by the Greek around 1200 BC.
  • The Achaemenid Persian Empire came to power in VI and Vth century before the Greek conquest by Alexander the Great.
  • Various Greek kingdoms emerged in the territory (Cappadocia, Bithynia, Pergamum, Bridge ...), they will be overwhelmed by the Romans in 324 BC.
  • A separation of the Roman Empire, Byzantium (later Constantinople) became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, ie the Byzantine Empire.

    The Middle Ages:
    • The Turks are originally a nomadic people of Asia who conquer territories to the west.
    • In 1299, the Sultan Osman Oguz 1st begins the conquest of Anatolia, this conquest will be relentless until the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent in XVIéme century the empire then spreads widely in the Balkans, Greece, in Egypt or even in Armenia.
    • In 1459, Sultan Mehmet II conquered Constantinople, it's the end of the Byzantine Empire and the beginning of the Ottoman Empire. Constantinople took the name of Istanbul.

      From the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries:
      • The Ottoman Empire is important in Europe but from the XVII century (especially with Vienna defeat in 1683), the empire began to lose territory and decline.
      • Turkey gradually loses all its territories in XVIII century and in the nineteenth century. Only Armenia remain under the control of the Ottoman Empire and will be the scene of a genocide in the early XXth century.

        The twentieth century:
        • At the end of World War I, the Treaty of Sevres sharing the Ottoman Empire.
        • Mustafa Kemal Ataturk led the Republican war and reconquered much of the territories. The Lausanne Treaty assigns Anatolia and Eastern Thrace to Turkey, Armenians were driven out of Turkish territory and the Greek minority in Turkey is exchanged with the Turkish minority in Greece. Mustafa Kemal was elected the first president of Turkey.
        • The new Turkish parliament scans the remains of the Ottoman Empire with the desire to create a modern, secular state.
        • During World War II Turkey remained neutral and in 1947-1948 she signed military and economic cooperation agreements with the United States. In 1946 the Democratic party came to power and secularism of Kemal suffered its first questioned.
        • In 1960, a military coup overthrew the government, General Gursel passed a new constitution guaranteeing democratic freedoms and new elections are to fill Ismet Inonu in 1961.
        • In 1971, a new military coup takes place, the military retain power a year before returning power to civilians. Military takes power again in 1980 and holds elections while keeping an important role in the constitution.
        • In 1991, Turkey is a candidate for accession to the EEC (later the EU), many reforms are in place to meet this application.
        • In 2002, the AKP, the moderate Islamist, wins the legislative. The role of the military decreases in government institutions.