History of London

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How is the city of London was developed to become a sprawling metropolis?

The timeline below provides an overview of the history of London and its cultural heritage, but you can learn more by visiting the city & hellip;

The first traces of human presence along the Thames Valley (& lsquo; Thames') date back half a million years. These are then scattered Celtic tribes.

The city of London as we know it does not take shape before the arrival of the Romans. These come in the first century BC, to trade with the Celtic and reconnoitre the place.

43 Invasion by the Roman armies, led by the Emperor Claudius, and founded the port of Londinium. Construction of a wooden bridge over the Thames, near the site of the current London Bridge.

61 The Romans are attacked by the army of Biodacée, queen of the Iceni tribe .

80-90 Roman Reconstruction .

200 The Romans built a wall around the city .

In the middle of the third century, Loinium 30 000 people of various ethnic backgrounds.

312 The Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity, which became the official religion of the entire Empire .

410 The Romans are leaving Britain .

Saxons gradually settled in Britain and around London.

At the end of the sixth century, Rome Lundenwic student, the Port of London as it is called the Saxons, to the rank of diocese. The first bishop, Mellitus, erected the Cathedral of Saint Paul.

842 Viking Attack on London, renewed 10 years later. The city is completely burned.

886 The King Alfred demanded London on behalf of Saxon and scares the Danish Vikings. The Saxons then resettled in the place they call Lundunburg, which will become the main trading center.

1016: After further Viking attacks, the Saxons cede the throne to the Danish leader Knud crowned King of England. London becomes the capital of England (until it was Winchester).

1042: On the death of the son of Knud, the crown back to Saxon Edward the Confessor. He founded the Abbey and the Palace of Westminster, and moved his court there.

On the death of Edward the Confessor several contenders compete the throne. In 1066, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, defeated his rival Harold Goldwinson during the Battle of Hastings, with the support of the Pope. It now controls London, the richest and largest city of the kingdom. As he is wary of the ferocious population, erected fortresses, like White Tower.

1078: Start of construction of the Tower of London (London Tower) .

1087 fire St. Paul's Cathedral .

1097: Start of construction of Westminster Hall, which will be the base of the palace of the same name .

1154: Death of King Stephen. Advent of the dynasty of the Plantagenets, with King Henry II. This family will reign over England for two and a half centuries.

Richard I, said Richard the Lionheart City grants the autonomous municipality status, it pays taxes to finance his crusades.

1176: Construction of Old London Bridge, stone .

1190: Election of the first mayor of the City, Henry Fitz Aylwin .

1215 Signing of the Magna Carta by John Lackland, which reduces the royal power for the benefit of powerful lords .

1348 Black Death, brought by the rats came from Europe by boat. 2/3 of the population succumb to it.

1476: William Caxton set up the first printing press in Westminster .

In the fifteenth century, London continues to grow and is gaining power (Families Lancaster and York). At the end of the century, Tudor access to the throne, and London became one of the most important cities in Europe.

1534 Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church because the Pope refused him the right to divorce, and proclaimed himself supreme head of the Church of England <. / p>

1547: Death of Henry VIII. His daughter, Mary Ist, returned to Catholicism and runs hundreds of Protestant martyrs, which earned him the nickname Bloody Mary (Mary bloody).

1558: On the death of Mary, Elizabeth I succeeded him. His reign lasted 45 years and puts an end to Catholic ca

uses in England. This period is considered one of the most extraordinary in British history.

1558 Path of the first map of London. The population exceeded 200 000.

1572: Royal Exchange opens. London becomes the main commercial center of the world.

1587: Rose Theater Construction .

1599: Opening Globe, Shakespeare's theater. Golden Age of English drama.

1603 Death of Elizabeth I. She has no heir, and this is his second cousin Jacques I of England who came to the throne.

November 5, 1605: An attempt by Guy Fawkes to blow up the parliament .

1642-1646 Civil War. Charles I was beheaded for treason.

Cromwell then ruled the country as a republic for 11 years. It prohibits all the fun activities.

1660 After the death of Cromwell, parliament returns to the monarchy and Place Charles II returned from exile on the throne .

1665 Great Plague, caused by a severe lack of hygiene in the city, 100 000 deaths .

September 2, 1666 Great Fire. The fire broke out in a bakery in Pudding Lane, in the heart of the City, is spreading rapidly because of the wind and engulfed the city for four days, destroying 80% of buildings.

The reconstruction allows the architect Christopher Wren to express his genius, including splendid churches.

1677: Erection of the monument of the column, in memory of the Great Fire. At the time, it was the tallest building in the city.

1685 1500 Huguenots arrive in London to escape persecution in Europe, following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes .

1688: The Glorious Revolution brought William of Orange to the throne. He left the Palace of Whitehall to settle in the Kensington Gardens.

1694 William III created the Bank of England to finance the war against France .

In the early eighteenth century, the city has more than 600 000 inhabitants. It is the largest city in Europe. Many foreign workers moved to the east and south of the city.

1708 End of reconstruction of St. Paul's Cathedral .

1710 Opening of the new St. Paul's Cathedral. Built by Christopher Wren, it marks the climax of the great works of the Restoration.

1714 Early Hanoverians George the First. Parliament is dominated by the Whig, Protestant party of Robert Walpole. He moved to 10 Downing Street, which became the official residence of Prime Ministers.

1750 Inauguration of Westminster Bridge, second to span the Thames after London Bridge. The Roman wall that surrounded the City is destroyed.

1751 Creation of the Bow Street Runners, a kind of volunteer militia to fight against rising crime .

1762 George III bought Buckingham House to make his palace. Today, it is still here that monarchs live.

1780 Violent riots broke out when Parliament proposes to repeal the law forbidding Catholics to access the property by purchase or inheritance.

1824 Foundation of the National Gallery .

1829 Foundation of the Metropolitan Police Force. They're called bobbies in reference to the Prime Minister who introduced them, Robert Peel.

1837. Coronation of Queen Victoria, who was only 18
Charles Dickens Oliver Twist published, a novel that portrays poverty, despair and the misery of the working class.

The reign of Victoria is very prosperous, thanks to the Industrial Revolution and colonial trade.

1851 Universal Exhibition held in the Crystal Palace by Prince Albert, husband of Queen .

1859. Erection Big Ben (Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament)
Darwin published the controversial Origin of Species pillar of the theory of evolution.

1863 Getting Tube service, first metro in the world that connects Paddington to Farrington Road .

1871 Construction of the Royal Albert Hall .

1877 First tennis championship at Wimbledon .

1884 Entry into force of Greenwich, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) .

1888. Establishment of the new County of London, run by the London County Council
Jack the Ripper murdered five women in Whitechapel .

1894 Construction Tower Bridge .

In the late nineteenth century, London's population reached 6 million, thanks to immigrants from China and Eastern Europe. They live mostly in crowded unsanitary slums.

1901 Death of Queen Victoria's son Edward VII ascended the throne .

1906 Construction of the Ritz .

1908 Olympic Games held in White City .

1909 Construction Selfridges .

1915 First bombs of World War dropped on London .

In the 1920s, the London County Council cleans the slums and building new subdivisions.

1922 First radio broadcast with the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) .

May 1926 General strike, caused by the recession and the large number of unemployed. During 9 days of living in London has stopped. The army intervened to restore order and prevent total paralysis of the city.

1936. First the BBC television show
Edward VIII abdicated and became King George IV
Battle of Cable Street. Half a million people prevent anti-Semitic march led by Oswald Mosley.

1940-1941 London is devastated by the Blitz Hitler. Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister.

1948 Olympic Games in London at Wembley Stadium .

From 1950, London became the land of many receiving immigrants from Commonwealth countries, including Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

1951. Festival of Britain

1952 Great Smog: lethal mix of haze, smoke and toxic pollution. 4,000 people die from diseases caused by smog.

1953 Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. End of rationing.

1956 Clean Air Act establishes the heart of London areas where only smokeless fuels can be burned
red buses fill the streets of London. .

1958: racist riots in Notting Hill .

1966: England wins the World Cup football at Wembley .

1969 Free concert of the Rolling Stones in Hyde Park .

1970: punk movement of the Apparition
bombings of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) ..

1978-1979 Winter of Discontent. Strikes that lead Prime Minister James Callaghan to cede his post to Margaret Thatcher, the first woman elected to this position

1981 racist riots in Brixton, the most violent in the history of London .

1986 Abolition of the Greater London Council (GLC), which made London the only European capital without autonomous government .

1990: Protest against council tax (poll tax) in Trafalgar Square
resignation of Margaret Thatcher.. John Major became Prime Minister.

The 1990s were also affected by the attacks of the IRA in 1992 and 1996.

1997 Victory Labor Party in the elections, Tony Blair was elected Prime Minister .

2003 Ken Livingstone, mayor elected GLC (Greater London Council) in 2000, introduced the congestion charge , congestion charge, which does wonders for the traffic in the city.

May 2005 Government ( Labor) Tony Blair renewed for the third time .

2005: The city of London was chosen to host the 2012 Olympic Games
July 7, 2005 terrorist attacks in the Tube , more than 50 dead, over 750 injured.

October 18, 2006-January 2007 Velazquez exhibition at the National Gallery .

June 24, 2007 Gordon Brown became head of the Labor Party .

June 27, 2007 Gordon Brown appointed Prime Minister .

2007: Getting urban overground train service .

2007: The Imperial College officially left the federation of the University of London (the largest university in the UK and Europe), and issues its own degrees.

2012: Summer Olympics. London will be the only city to be awarded the Olympics three times.