The history of Tunisia ... in outline


Not easy to sum up the rich history of Tunisia has a few lines ... however, it is always interesting to be aware of the major events that have marked the history of the country that we visit. To us then we dive deeper into the periods that excite us.

  • traces of human presence are evidenced on the Tunisian territory from the Paleolithic, the first inhabitants were Berbers and other peoples of East Africa and the Iberian Peninsula came aggregate.
  • In the eighth century BC, the Phoenicians came to found the city of Carthage. This city will soon prosper and open counters in the Mediterranean. Carthage becomes the great rival of Rome and the two cities compete in the Punic Wars (264-241 BC, 218-202 BC, 149-146 BC).
  • The third war will lead to the destruction of Carthage, the city is razed and the ground sown with salt so that nothing can repel! Roman Africa gives new life to Carthage becoming very successful as evidenced by the many Roman remains in Tunisia.
  • In 439 Carthage was conquered by the Vandals, a century later the Byzantines took power.

    The Middle Ages:
    • The Arabs finally settled in Tunisia including building the city of Kairouan. The Arab dynasties followed one another over the centuries (Aghlabids Fatimids, Almohad ...).
    • The Almohads are the major unifying Maghreb but XIIIth century Hafsides declare themselves independent of the caliph of Marrakech and founded the capital of the kingdom in Tunis.

      From the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries:
      • Tunisia was annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1574 and regain its independence at the XIX century for some time before becoming a French protectorate. Anti-colonial movements are taking place at the beginning of XXth century, the Liberal Constitutional Party (the Destour) demanding independence.

        The twentieth century:
        • Habib Bourguiba, member of the Destour, was imprisoned in France in 1936 for conspiracy against the security of the state. Freed in 1944, he negotiated with France in 1952 whereas an armed resistance is taking place.
        • The independence treaty was signed in 1955 and independence in 1956, Bourguiba is then proclaimed president and the monarchy was abolished in 1957. It establishes modern reforms and reduced the power of religious leaders.
        • In 1987, Ben Ali takes advantage of the physical weakness of Bourguiba and social and economic difficulties to lead a coup. Until the Tunisian Revolution of 2011, Ben Ali set up an authoritarian and corrupt regime.