The history of India ... in outline


Vacances en Inde

Not easy to summarize the rich history of India in a few lines ... however, it is always interesting to be aware of the major events that have marked the history of the country that 'we are visiting. To us then we dive deeper into the periods that excite us.

Antiquity:
  • The first human occupation of Indian territory are attested as early as 9000 BC, an important emerging civilization in the Indus Valley between 1900 BC and 1600 BC.
  • From 1600 BC, the populations from Central Asia developed Vedic culture in association with the natives.
  • In the VIth century BC, when Hinduism develops from the Vedic culture, Buddhism and Jainism emerged. Many independent kingdoms grow even if the Maurya dynasty dominate India in the fourth century BC, many regional dynasties succeed, especially south of the Kalinga, the Chera Chola or the north and the Sunga or Kuninda.
  • From the late IIIĆ©me century in the middle of VIth century Gupta dominate India.

    From the Indian Middle Ages to modern India:
    • From the VIIth, kingdoms multiply and clash but gradually the Indian regions are secured by the Muslim conquests. This results in the Delhi Sultanate and especially from 1526 to the Mughal Empire.
    • In southern India, several kingdoms resist including prosper the kingdom of Vijayanagara.
    • The Mughal Empire undertook deep reforms, especially under the leadership of Abkar, and a modern state emerges. The country is covered with palaces and mosques, the Taj Mahal was built in the XVII century.
    • During this time the Europeans (Portuguese, French, Dutch, English) create posts on the Indian coast.

      Colonization:
      • The British take advantage of the many political divisions to take power in India, they triumph over their European rivals and half of the XIX century they dominate the country.
      • They set up a colonial administration which remains under the sovereignty of the Mughal Emperor.
      • In 1857, Indian soldiers, the sepoys, revolted against the British East India Company. The uprising is caulked and India is placed directly under the control of the crown.

        Independence:
        • Indian nationalists gather in 1885 in the Congress Party and the prices of many struggles India gained independence in 1947.
        • The Muslims get a score and Pakistan is created.
        • Nehru is the CEO, he launched many reforms and implementing a planned socialist inspiration.
        • The clashes between Hindus and Muslims continue and India face several times Pakistan, particularly over the status of Kashmir.
        • In 1975, Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister said the state of emergency and limit civil rights. Democracy was restored in the early 1990s.
        • While the parties succeed to power in the 1990s, Congress takes up the reins of power in 2004, the current president is Pratibha Patil but the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh who holds most of the power.