The South African history ... in outline


Afrique du Sud

Not easy to summarize the rich history of South Africa in a few lines ... however, it is always interesting to be aware of the major events that have marked the history of the country that we visit. To us then we dive deeper into the periods that excite us.

Until XV:
  • The Khoisan are the first people known in South Africa as early as 40,000 BC.
  • By the fourth century, the Bantu peoples migrated from the Niger Delta, the Xhosa tribes will settle in different parts of the territory until Xéme century.
  • In 1488, the Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias reached the Cape of Good Hope in 1497 followed by Vasco da Gama.

    XVII and XVIII:
    • In 1652, the Dutch East India Company set up a refueling station at the Cape, slaves are routed to overcome the lack of labor.
    • In 1688, 800 French Huguenots founded the colony Franschloek. Boer, Anglo-Dutch farmers began moving inland from the XVIII century.
    • The first clashes with Xhosa take place at the end of XVIII and between 1779 and 1878, 9 wars between the colonial administration and the tribes will take place.

      XIX
      • In 1806, the British replaced the Dutch head of the new colony.
      • In 1835, the Boer migrate inland to escape British rule. They founded the South African Republic of Transvaal and the Orange Free State to be recognized by the British in 1852 and 1854 respectively.
      • The Cape Colony continues to expand donation territory and English Zulu clash at the Anglo-Zulu War in 1879.
      • The British then face the Boers and annex the Transvaal and the Orange Free State to sit their domination over the whole of South Africa. Many Boer civilians perish in the British concentration camps.

        XX
        • In 1910, the South Africa Act establishes a parliamentary democracy with broad autonomy and a sovereign parliament. The Boer general Louis Botha will be the first head of government. In 1912, the ANC, a Bantu political party is based.
        • The South African troops are widely involved in the First World War. Revolts Afrikaners succeed and are harshly repressed.
        • From 1934, when the country was hit by the economic crisis, the policy of apartheid was based. In 1948 the National Party won the elections and implementing the policy of apartheid. In 1960, the African nationalist political parties are banned, the United Nations condemned the apartheid policy.
        • In 1961, South Africa finally leaves the Commonwealth and proclaimed the Republic of South Africa. The ANC began the armed struggle in 1963 Nelson Mandela is sentenced to life in prison for terrorism.
        • In 1976, riots broke out in the township of Soweto, the state of emergency is declared. In 1986, the country is subject to economic sanctions and is isolated internationally.
        • In 1990, the ANC and all black movements are legalized, Nelson Mandela is released. In 1991, the last apartheid laws were abolished and in 1994, Nelson Mandela became the first black president.
        • In 1999 Thabo Mbeki was elected president but the country is suffering serious economic difficulties, it is replaced in 2009 by Jacob Zuma.